Diego Simeone’s side took the lead when Angel Correa fired in after receiving a pass from England’s Kieran Trippier – who was suspended for 10 weeks for betting breaches.
Saul Niguez ensured victory in the 76th minute with a thumping effort.
Sevilla who is the sixth in the table had their first defeat in 10 games in all competitions.
Atletico now has 41 points from 16 games, four clear of second-placed Real Madrid, who have played two games more.
They were made to work hard for their win with the visitors producing 13 efforts on goal compared to their five. However, Atletico keeper Jan Oblak only had to make two saves of note.
Simeone’s men made the most of their chances, with forward Luis Suarez also coming close to scoring, only to be denied by the brilliance of Sevilla keeper Bono.